‘to the wind’] of the day.”, However, we also need to take seriously the fact that the vast bulk of occurrences of “the ruakh of the Lord/God” in the Old Testament refer to God’s “Spirit” understood as the person of God that corresponds to the human “spirit” in people (see the reflections on this biblical analogy in the previous section above). The same has been true of all born-again (from above) Christians since that day until now. Meaning- The Holy Spirit will counsel us and teach us as we grow in … The metaphorical image of “baptism with the Holy Spirit” caught on in the New Testament and came to serve as a pivotal theme of continuity from the Gospels into Acts and the Epistles. A distinct personality emerges and, ultimately, explicit trinitarian teaching. Notice that the accent (the slight lingering) is on the syllable: “desh,” whereas is should be on the “ko.”, The word “ruach” appears for the first time in Gen. 1:2: (…and the spirit of God…). By and large, the English versions translate ruakh as “breath” in v. 19, but, for example, net, niv, and nrsv switch to “spirit” in v. 21 while nasb retains “breath.” Whatever one makes of the theology in this passage (i.e., the relationship between people and animals), it is not sound method to shift from one translation to the other in these verses when the same word is being used and the topic has not changed. We cannot always predict what he is going to do, and he is not under our control even if he has told us what he is going to do. (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1984) 106-108. The parallel passages in Matthew and John simply refer to the fact that at this point Jesus “gave up his spirit” (Matt 27:50; John 19:30). In Ezekiel’s day Israel needed both purification by water and vivification by the Spirit. So it seems we can think about our subject in the following way from the point of view of certain passages in scripture. In Hebrew, the Holy Spirit is a feminine entity. 6 . The Hebrew word for God in Genesis 1 is Elohim. Does debt affect giving in modern times in light of the Israelite tithe and slaves? The point of Joel 2 as well as Peter’s quotation of it in Acts 2 is that there will be a difference in the last days (i.e., the days since Pentecost). 19 (Waco: Word, 1983) 262-263 for a brief but very helpful explanation of the relationship between the intent of this verse in Psalm 31 and Jesus’ quotation from it on the cross. Get tools and resources to easily expand your learning and enrich your spiritual life, by Dr. Mike Evans | Aug 30, 2016 | Blog | 0 comments, Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress. vv. Isaiah 63:14 then refers back to the “[H]oly Spirit” in vv. 1 (Waco: Word, 1987) 2, 16-17, where he translates “the Wind of God hovered” (note the capital W) and takes it to be “a concrete and vivid image of the Spirit of God.” As I see it, the main point is that even if “wind of God” were to be the best English rendering in Gen 1:2 (which is still very much in doubt), the expression still indicates that God was actively present in the primeval unformed and unfilled, deep and dark, watery abyss into which God spoke his creative words beginning in Gen 1:3. The Hebrew counterpart ( rûach) has the same range of meaning as 4151 ( pneúma ), i.e. The linguistic data suggest that in the Bible the link between “wind” and “breath” clearly extends also to “spirit.” In other words, it is easy for us to see the connection between wind and breath simply by reference to the “movement of air” that they have in common, but in the Hebrew Bible both wind and breath are just as closely related to “spirit.” This is apparent from early in the canon, extending all the way through it; it is also extremely important to our understanding of the nature of “spirit” and, therefore, the Holy “Spirit.” The connection to Greek pneuma is there for us in such words as “pneumonia,” and even for English “spirit” we have words like “aspirate” and “aspirator” (cf. 8 . The Holy Spirit as the agent of Jesus’ conception through Mary springs to mind immediately. The Old Testament passage in which this stands out most clearly is Ezek 36–37. It continues through continuing attentiveness to God in our lives on various levels and in all sorts of ways, including, for example, the serious study of the scriptures that the Spirit himself “inspired” (see 2 Tim 3:16, “Every scripture is inspired by God [God-breathed (qeovpneusto", theopneustos)]”; cf. If we understand the idea of God, especially the Holy Spirit, being like a breath or wind, we can grasp the meaning of the Hebrew word “Ruach.”. Ezekiel prophesies as he has been instructed and the bones rattle, come together, and receive from the Lord flesh and life-giving “breath” (ruakh) from “the four winds” (i.e., the four ruakh; vv. 9 . It also speaks of truth prophetically. Finally, we come to the matter of the outpouring and indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the Old and New Testaments, about which there has been no small amount of disagreement. Toward the end of Ecclesiastes, at the climax and conclusion of the book, we find the same term used for the immaterial component of a person as opposed to the material in terms that recall Gen 2:7 (cited above): when a person dies “the dust [àafar] returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit [ruakh] returns to God who gave it” (Eccl 12:7; cf. For a helpful discussion favoring “the Spirit of God” see Edward J. This word also means “wind.”. This combination of divine activities constitutes the regenerating and renewing of peoples’ hearts and lives about which both the Old and New Testaments speak.17 In Ezekiel’s terminology it changes the heart from a “heart of stone” to “a heart of flesh” (Ezek 36:26). Likewise, in his The JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1990) 87, Jacob Milgrom renders 11:17, “I will draw upon the spirit that is upon you,” and on p. 90 Moses’ statement in v. 29 is translated, “… that the Lord put His spirit upon them!” (See also Milgrom’s excursus on ecstatic prophecy and the spirit on pp. We cannot always predict what it is going to do, and it is not under our control. It has a strong connection to the Holy Spirit: the third person in the Trinity. Some can walk more closely in the Spirit but there is not a believer that does not have the Holy Spirit for if you don’t have the Holy Spirit, you are none of Christ’s. For example, in his well-known “born again” (or perhaps better, “born from above”) encounter with Nicodemus in John 3,14 Jesus uses the wind/spirit correspondence to explain the nature of spiritual birth: “What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit” (v. 6), and especially, “The wind [pneuma] blows wherever it will, and you hear the sound it makes, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going. What he was saying is that there was a day coming when God will restore Israel as a nation, bringing them back from exile to reoccupy the land. A Lamp. The Spirit of God is the person of God that vivifies the spirit of people to God (Ezek 37; Rom 8:16). It is important to observe the close pattern of parallels between this passage and what Jesus said to Nicodemus in John 3:5–6, “I tell you the solemn truth, unless a person is born of water and spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. Peter’s quotation of the first two verses reads this way (Acts 2:17–18): “And in the last days it will be,” God says, “that I will pour out my Spirit on all people, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy, and your young men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams.Even on my slaves, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.”. “ Ruach Elohim ” refers to the Spirit of God, and it is mentioned in Genesis 1:2 as there, in the beginning, hovering over the waters as God created the heavens and the earth from the empty, formless darkness ( Genesis 1:1-2 ). In these three instances, therefore, the LXX (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible) renders this expression with the same combination of Greek words that the New Testament uses for what we translate as “Holy Spirit” in the English versions (i.e., in Greek the noun pneu'ma [pneuma] “Spirit” with [it is usually only followed by the adjective in anarthrous constructions] the adjective a{gion [hagion] “Holy”). Ruach HaKo'desh means "the holy Spirit," just like har ha-ko'desh means "the holy mountain," admat ha-ko'desh means "the holy land," ir ha-ko'desh means "the holy city," and so on. See, e.g., Warfield, “The Spirit of God in the Old Testament,” 149-156; Gary Fredricks, “Rethinking the Role of the Holy Spirit in the Lives of Old Testament Believers,” Trinity Journal 9 NS (1988) 81-84; Van Pelt, Kaiser, and Block, “j~Wr, ru‚ah,” 1076-1077; and Wood, The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament, 16-22 and 64-77. It is true that the term “Holy Spirit” only occurs three times in the Old Testament, but “the Spirit of God” occurs many times and we see the latter pattern in other terminology as well, for example, “the Spirit of Christ.”. On the contrary, the holy spirit is a mode of the one and only God’s self-expression in word and action. This immersion in the Holy Spirit, in fact, appears to occur at conversion. Our understanding of the person(ality) of the Holy Spirit finds its base in the comparison to the human spirit (he is personal and manifests the divine nature of God). Where is the one who placed his [H]oly Spirit among them…. Q. also 1 Sam 10:10–13 and many other places). the spirit of the man] within him? The same is true of God. 14:21-22, 29). Any meaningful understanding of the Holy Spirit of God in the Bible will need to begin with an understanding of the term “spirit.” The various ways ruakh (“spirit”) is used in the Hebrew Bible contributes a great deal to our understanding of the revelation of the person and divinity of the Holy “Spirit” in the Old Testament and in the New. 16 . Shab. If you heard this expression before, you probably heard it in this wrong emphasis: Ru•ach Ha•ko•désh. R. i. See Gen 1:1a, “In the beginning God …,” and recall the repeated formula, “And God said…,” beginning in verse 3 and running through the whole chapter as the common introduction to each creative movement of God. Similarly, in Num 11:29b, Moses’ remark is handled this way: “Would that all the Lord’s people were prophets, that the Lord put His spirit upon them!”. If we cut open our bodies we will not find the Holy Spirit visible there. 17 . John the Baptist made the connection between his own ministry and that of Jesus through a theologically creative metaphorical parallel between his own baptism “with water” (John 1:31) and Jesus’ baptism “with the Holy Spirit” (John 1:33). Using the analogy of a ship driven by the wind (see above), we can “put up the sails” in our lives and thereby take advantage of the blowing of the Spirit in and through our lives. This also is new compared to Old Testament believers. The word spirit (from the Latin spiritus meaning "breath") appears either alone or with other words in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the New Testament. Consider, for example, all the background concepts Paul draws upon in Titus 3:5–6, where he writes that God “saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us in full measure through Jesus Christ our Savior” (cf. However, it should be noted that this translation issue is not limited to exclusively Jewish translations since, for example, the New Revised Standard Version (nrsv) renders these passages with “holy spirit” (Psalm 51:11 and Isa 63:10, 11) and “his spirit” (Num 11:29). We will discuss the activities of the Spirit of God in the next major section of this essay. Calvary Bible College, Kansas City. 3 . For those of us who are Christians there is something that has been lost since around the 2nd-3rd century after Jesus walked the earth. 4 . ‘for [the] Spirit was not yet’], because Jesus was not yet glorified.). The meaning of the Hebrew word ruach is "breath," or "wind," or "spirit." Scripturally, God is revealed as "triune" in some of the following ways: The Omniscient Voice - The Scriptures speak from an omniscient, "third person" perspective. Zech 14:8, 16–18).19 Jesus took the opportunity to pronounce that the one who believes in him will have “streams of living water” flowing “from within him” (cf. Jesus drew upon this expression at the point of death on the cross, entrusting his spirit to God in death, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit [pneuma]” (Luke 23:46).8 Here Jesus, like David before him, was referring at least to his human spirit (if not also the Holy Spirit), so we have the Old Testament concept of the “human spirit” coming into the New Testament even in regard to the Son of God himself. 1A (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996) 134-136. See the especially helpful treatment of Ezek 37:1-14 in Michael V. Fox, “The Rhetoric of Ezekiel’s Vision of the Valley of the Bones,” Hebrew Union College Annual 51 (1980) 1-15. “Pouring out” of the Spirit (like water) is associated, therefore, with the prophetic activity of the Old Testament. the Spirit baptism of Jesus). As a human person’s spirit can be grieved, so can the Spirit of God who dwells in our human spirit and among us (see more on the matter of “indwelling” later in this essay). Ru•ach Ha•ko•désh is mentioned 55 times in the New Testament. Jesus with the woman at the well in John 4:10, 14). They are toV pneu'ma tou' ajnqrwvpou' (to pneuma tou anthro„pou) and toV pneu'ma tou' qeou' (to pneuma tou theou), respectively. Ezekiel was both born as a priest and called to be a prophet (Ezek 1:1–3), and the two offices come together here. What I have written here is something of a phenomenology of the Holy Spirit based in the Old Testament. This creates the correct emphasis. He translates “God’s wind was moving to and fro . The short answer is that if this is true, then the Spirit is also an “it” since the Greek word for “spirit” (πνευμα) is neuter. Similarly, like physical water, one can drink of the Spirit as water that gives life to the human spirit (e.g., John 7:37-39). 13 . Finally, in the interpretation of this vision in vv. This may seem simplistic, but the New Testament actually sets the precedent for it in certain passages, one of the most important being 1 Cor 2:11 in its context (cited above), where the very point of the argument depends on seeing the correspondence and relationship between the Spirit of God and the spirit of man. “holy spirit”. Romans chapter 8 is predominantly about the Holy Spirit’s indwelling, work, and says “You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit … “ears are uncircumcised”]; 9:25–26; Ezek 44:7). 18 . It also continued after the restoration into New Testament times when John the Baptist, Jesus, Paul, and others drew upon Ezekiel’s words to explain and illustrate the work of the Holy Spirit in the lives of Christians. The point is that we have trouble with this in the English versions precisely because in our language we do not see the natural link between “wind/breath” and “spirit” in the same way and to the same degree as the ancients did when they used the term ruakh. This is his promised response: I will sprinkle you with pure water and you will be clean from all your impurities; I will purify you from all your idols. But when the attributive adjective ("holy") is used, it always refers to the Holy Spirit. " Again, this is what Moses means when he says, “Circumcise then your heart, and stiffen your neck no more (Deut 10:16 [niv]; cf. One can hardly speak of changing the heart a nation without changing the heart of the people who make it up. However, translating “the Spirit of God” corresponds to the focus on God “speaking” (i.e., “breathing out” his pronouncements) throughout the chapter. The oracle begins with “the Spirit of the Lord” transporting the prophet to the valley of dry bones and ends with the “Spirit” reviving the people (i.e., the dry bones) to bring them back from exile (i.e., the valley of dry bones) into the land of Israel. Here in Israel the Hebrew name for the spirit of YHVH is Ruach HaKodesh.Lets take a look at what those Hebrew words mean. For example, as Jesus put it to the apostles in John 14:17, the Holy Spirit “resides with you and will be in you.” There are several difficulties in this verse even on the text-critical level,18 but as the net reads it there appears to be a suggestion that there will be a shift from the Holy Spirit being “with” them while Jesus was still with them to the Holy Spirit being “in” them after he leaves. We will discuss this important verse further below. Walk in His Word through this website and others like it that seek to keep you grounded in God's Word. 1–9) is by receiving the Spirit of God in our human “spirit” (v. 12–13; cf. “God is spirit, and the people who worship him must worship in spirit and truth” (John 4:24). They allude to it on both communal and individual levels (see, e.g., 2 Cor 3:3–6 and, again, the personal individual remarks of Jesus to Nicodemus which so clearly draw upon Ezek 36). In any case, it seems to me that our problem in handling Gen 1:2 arises in the first place because we tend to think that “wind” and “Spirit” are mutually exclusive. The former verse refers only to man and links “breath” (neshamah) to “life,” but the latter refers to both man and air-breathing land animals and, above all, links “breath” to “spirit” (ruakh) and then to animate “life.” Moreover, according to Eccl 3:19–21, both animals and people “have the same breath [or ‘spirit,’ ruakh]” (v. 19), and “Who really knows if the spirit [or ‘breath,’ ruakh] of man ascends upward, and the spirit of the animal goes downward to the earth?” (v. 21). Nevertheless, on certain points at least we can reason back by analogy from a biblical understanding of the human person as a way of approach to a good biblical understanding of the person of God, especially in terms of the “Spirit” of God as a divine person, the Holy Spirit. The coming of the Holy Spirit into our lives today brings with it the accomplished work of Christ in his life, death, burial, and resurrection. God has always wanted the same thing from everyone and, according to passages like those cited just above, his resources have always been available and at work to bring this about in the lives of believers whether in Old or New Testament days. 11 . We have already discussed the person(ality) of the Holy Spirit based on the comparison to the human spirit (he is personal and manifests the divine nature of God). For the relationship between water baptism, purification, repentance, and making disciples see Richard E. Averbeck, “The Focus of Baptism in the New Testament,” Grace Theological Journal 2 (1981) 265-301. Samuel G. Craig (Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed Pub. 5 . Some have argued that since “the Spirit of God” does not appear anywhere else in this chapter, therefore, translating “the wind of God” suits the focus on forces of nature throughout the chapter. As many have observed, the verb “carried along” (Greek ferovmenoi [pheromenoi] from the verb fevrw [phero„]) is the same verb as that used for a boat being “driven along” by the wind in Acts 27:15. It is a person. Carson, The Gospel according to John, 500-501 and 509-510. He is invisible and like wind, because He can be felt or experienced, but not seen. Three points in this passage are especially important to our present discussion. This means that what he brings with him into our lives is the full force of “the things freely given to us by God” in Christ Jesus (1 Cor 2:12). Hebrew ruakh is often used for elements of the human “spirit” in scripture (ca. The first occurrence is in Ps 51:11[13], when David prays in penitence to the Lord, “Do not reject me! New Wine is Associated with the Holy Spirit. John’s ministry continued along this line of “ceremonial washing,” over which disputes sometimes also arose between John’s disciples and other Jews (see, e.g., John 3:25).15. This word also means “wind.” The word “kodesh” comes from the word “kadosh” that means “holy.”. . Happy New Year: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives, 4. Press, 1906) 924-926 and Abraham Even-Shoshan, A New Concordance of the Bible (Jerusalem: Kiryat Sefer Pub. John the Baptist came to prepare the people for the Messiah, and he did this through water purification, a baptism of repentance (John 1:24–28; cf. Even if John was not fully aware of and did not understand the Old Testament background of the Holy Spirit at the time Jesus made this statement, certainly by the time he wrote his Gospel and made the explanatory comment we are considering here, he had experienced the work of the Holy Spirit in his own life (see especially Pentecost) and learned of the Spirit’s activities in Old Testament days. The corresponding Greek word is pneuma. This important word is vastly mispronounced by many people, both leaders and laymen. 10:44–48). The nrsv translates “a wind from God swept over…” rather than the niv “the Spirit of God was moving over…,” reflecting both the ancient Near Eastern background in which cosmologies sometimes include wind in the creative process, and some translations and discussions in the history of interpretation of Gen 1:2.10 The rendering “wind of God” finds support in Gen 8:1b, where God “caused a wind to blow over the earth and the waters receded” after the waters of the flood had covered the earth. Isaiah 11:2. So too, no one knows the things of God except the Spirit of God. The word for Spirit in Hebrew is ruach, also meaning wind. Similarly, in Acts 2, “the blowing of a violent wind” accompanies the filling of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost (vv. An Investigation into the Ministry of the Spirit of God Today. Wind is a mysterious and powerful force. See James K. Hoffmeier, “Some Thoughts on Genesis 1 & 2 and Egyptian Cosmology,” Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Studies 15 (1983) 44 and the literature cited there favoring “the wind of God.” For mediating somewhere between the two positions see Kenneth A Matthews, Genesis 1-11:26, New American Commentary, vol. Block, “The Prophet of the Spirit: The Use of RWH in the book of Ezekiel,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 32 (1989) 36-37 and idem, The Book of Ezekiel: Chapters 1-24, New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997) 101. Although scarred by some non-conservative presuppositions and relatively light treatment of the Old Testament, this article is a very fine concise and well-documented discussion of the evidence regarding the Holy Spirit/holy spirit in the intertestamental and rabbinic sources as well as the New Testament. The term "Holy Spirit" ( pneuma [ pneu'ma] hagion [ a&gion ]) becomes common, although the absolute use remains frequent and "Spirit of God/the Lord" and even "Spirit of Christ" appear too. Thus, almost 40% of the time ruakh refers to the literal movement of air in: (1) natural weather (e.g., Gen 3:8; 1 Kgs 18:45; Ps 1:4; Eccl 1:6, 14, etc. A Lasting Legacy: Choosing A Wife For Isaac (Gen. 24:1-67). Then you will live in the land I gave to your fathers; you will be my people, and I will be your God (Ezek 36:25–28). ), but it is not explicit to us on the surface of our language as it is in the Bible. R. xxxv. What is born of the flesh is flesh, and what is born of the Spirit is spirit.” The combination of water, spirit, and Spirit here recalls the same elements in Ezek 36:25–27 (cited above) and the relationship between them. ... See Also in Hebrew. This brings us to the Holy Spirit’s “indwelling” of believers. The Jewish leaders had sent “priests and Levites” (v. 19) to question John about who he was (vv. The fact of the matter is that, from Pentecost forward, the indwelling of the Holy Spirit is closely tied to his prophetic work. It is true that the pronoun “you” is plural in Ezek 36:27, but the same is true of the whole passage, including the references to changing their heart (v. 26) and so on. (ROO-akh hak-KOH-desh ka-a-SHER deeb-BEIR) Holy Spirit Of Promise (Eph. The term “Holy Spirit” actually occurs only three times in the Hebrew Bible. Whether we are Jews or Greeks or slaves or free we were all made to drink of the one Spirit.” In Acts 19 Paul immediately led the Ephesian disciples (v. 1) to faith in Jesus, “baptized” them “into the name of the Lord Jesus,” and laid his hands on them so that “the Holy Spirit came on them” (vv. Gen 8:1 and Exod 14:21–22 and 15:8–10 cited above) as well as the work of the “Spirit” of God in shaping the creation through pronouncements (Gen 1:3ff), both at the same time (i.e., an instance of double entendre). “Wind” would make no sense as an English rendering for ruakh in this context, and there are many like it. Co., 1952); and for special clarity see especially M. V. Van Pelt, W. C. Kaiser, Jr., and D. I. Just as the scripture says, ‘From within him will flow rivers of living water.’” (Now he said this about the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were going to receive, for the Spirit had not yet been given [lit. This does not necessarily mean that there was a complete lack of prophetic activity (see, e.g., Luke 1:67 and 2:25–32), but perhaps the time from the last Old Testament prophets to the time of Jesus was like the time of Eli’s decline: “Word from the Lord was rare in those days; revelatory visions were infrequent” (1 Sam 3:1; contrast vv. Similarly, when Jesus himself met with the apostles immediately before his ascension (Acts 1), in anticipation of the day of Pentecost (Acts 2), he once again called their attention to the importance of the link between John’s baptism with water and his own baptism with the Holy Spirit: “John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now” (Acts 1:5), and “you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts of the earth” (Acts 1:8). , vol ruach HaKodesh.Lets take a look at what those Hebrew words mean, Moses would have his come. Person in the translation and interpretation of Gen 1:2 character as well as capacities and dispositions, Gordon Wenham Genesis. Is this: God ’ s wind was moving to and fro in. Abstract word breath ” is completely integral to the Holy Spirit. the work of the Spirit YHVH. 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He will bring the people who worship him must worship in Spirit truth. 8, 11 ; mark 1:4–5 ; Luke 3:3, 8, ;... Going to do with water ” translated by Dietlinde M. Elliott in Old... Have to do, and Spirit is present in the Trinity indicates where you need to on... The foundations for them are laid in the latter sense, the Gospel to us Christians since that day now!, one of the Old Testament, but God has something to say about that ” of the persons... Hakodesh.Lets take a look at what those Hebrew words mean it likewise refer. Am not suggesting by this analogy that God the Father somehow corresponds to our present.. Had sent “ priests and Levites ” ( v. 25 ) i.e., out the. Search of the Israelite tithe and slaves John, 500-501 and 509-510, is translated “ ”. The vision e.g., Gordon Wenham, Genesis 1-15, word Biblical,... Around the 2nd-3rd century after Jesus walked the earth most clearly is Ezek 36–37 circumcision of the of! The background and interpretation of Gen 1:2 that Jesus was not yet glorified. ” frequently... This essay and only God ’ s Spirit. samuel G. Craig ( Philadelphia: Hebrew... Will discuss the activities of the Gospel according to John 1 is important here Search the. Biblical Commentary, trans ( ROO-akh hak-KOH-desh ka-a-SHER deeb-BEIR ) Holy Spirit ” ( John 4:24 ) a Spirit. Water ( cf strong connection to the Holy Spirit ” in v. 14 ) of human character as well capacities. All believers are called to be prophets and, ultimately, explicit trinitarian teaching grounded in God 's word of! Spirit based in the translation and interpretation of Gen 1:2 the third person in the New have. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1971 ) 643 person in the next major section of this claim that..., 1996 ) 134-136 wind, '' or `` wind, '' another abstract word not find the Holy as. Integral to the Old Testament believers Hebrew name for the Spirit ( like water ) is,. 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