* The RESET button will change all the settings Next, enter the length and width of the area followed by the intended depth of the gravel. Please choose a branch to set local stock and prices. First choose which product you are going to use: 10mm & 20mm Gravel 40mm MOT, DOT and 40mm & 75mm Crusher Runs Sharp Sand Ballast 40mm & 75mm Clean Stone Recycled Crushed Brick & Concrete (6F5/6F2) */ Order Samples; Stoneyard Thin Veneer ; Homestead Thin Veneer; All Thin Stone Veneer; Stone … Making the most of the Green Homes Grant with ROCKWOOL Learn more . if(selShape=="5"){ Contact us at: It } It is our suggestion that this information be used as a guideline. The WestRock Roll Calculators, Sheet Calculators and Metric Conversion Calculators are provided to you as a convenient tool. volume = length × width × depth document.calculator.img1.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/outer.jpg"; document.calculator.img3.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/notreq.jpg"; A more accurate way would be to use a bathroom scale under the rear wheel and a 2x4 under the front wheel, to determine the true sprung weight at the rear wheel. if(selShape=="1"){ /*Rounding really really small pounds*/ if(selShape=="4"){ return true; Coupled with a little preparation, this calculator will ensure that your project will be a … St. Louis, MO 63139 (tel) 314.781.1573 (fax) 314.781.0621 Calculate what you need for your next project. } document.calculator.units2.selectedIndex="3"; Multiply the volume by the density (in the same units) to get the weight; It is often a good idea to consider buying 5-6% more gravel than estimated by our calculator, to be on the safe side. "+H}}return E}function refresh(){var A=format(value);if(exponent){if(Hj<0){A+=" "+Hj}else{A+=" +"+Hj}}if(A.indexOf(". Technical Support Tools. Stone Veneer. In general, Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a particle or object. if(Weight<"0.0001"){ } weight max = 3.7 × 1.7 = 6.3 tons. "); Forum | Login | Register. if(MatlSelect!="0"){ } Permeable Paving Aggregate: 2-6.3mm Bedding Aggregate 4-20mm Sub Base Aggregate. document.calculator.value2.value=""; default unit. if(unit=="0") if(unit=="mm") } Find out how much it costs to build a retaining wall. This is one of the heaviest boulder materials you might encounter. To use this calculator, a user just enters his or her weight and clicks the 'Calculate' button, and his/her weight will automatically be computed and shown below. Values[0]=DensityConverter(Values[0],Units[0]); "); Weight Calculator. if(Weight2>="0.0001"){ Values[1]=UnitConverter(Values[1],Units[1]); Materials, substances and compounds volume to weight conversions. to the drawing at right-side of screen. Sand 1.10 - 1.25 tons(2,200 - 2,500 lb.) Our quantity calculator will help you calculate the amount of tonnes you require for your project. A Newton is equal to 1-kilogram meter per second squared. hit ENTER key or click on CALCULATE button. Calculate weight of Basalt, solid per volume, it weighs 3 011 kg/m³ (187.97059 lb/ft³). document.calculator.Submit.value="Calculate"; Fortunately you don't have to remember the density of gravel - our calculator sets this value for you by default. The first step to estimating gravel, sand, or soil is to estimate the volume of material needed. CALCULATORS. Please use this calculator to select which product you would like to calculate the total tonnage estimated for your project. Calculate Tonnage * Required field. Our bulk material calculator is a powerful tool that will help you calculate the volume of stone required. var MatlSelect; var imgshape; =? Values[3]=UnitConverter(Values[3],Units[3]); "); } These Unit Conversion calculators allow you to easily convert between various Englisn and Metric units for length, area, volume, weight, temperature, pressure, and force. weight min = 3.7 × 1.4 = 5.2 tons For example, let’s find the amount of gravel needed for a space that is 10 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 1 foot deep. value=(value*2.54)*12; Type a value in the Kilograms field to convert the value to Pounds: Type a value in the Pounds field to convert the value to Kilograms: /***************************************** Sand and Gravel Calculator | Calculate how much sand or gravel you need for your project | Buildbase. For triangle beds, measure the two sides that meet at the 90° angle) If you don't know what kind of rock you're measuring, use the following figures (these are the average specific gravities of most rocks): 2.7 g/cm3 (2,700 kg/m3) or.0975 lbs/in3 (168.55 lbs/ft3). } Try out our materials calculator tool to get a better understanding of the materials you will require. Interestingly, the oxidizer storage carriers exactly enough to burn 3 full fuel storage containers of fuel. if(!Valid) Technical Support Tools. Calculate weight of Granite, solid per volume, it weighs 2 691 kg/m³ (167.99364 lb/ft³). if(Shape=="1")/*Square Column*/ Use the Acoustic calculator to generate calculations for your construction project and download useful BIM data simultaneously. if(selShape=="7"){ Density=document.calculator.material.options[document.calculator.material.selectedIndex].value; Weight=(Values[0] * 0.707327 * Values[1] * Values[1] * Values[2] * Values[4]); material and wish to obtain the accurate instead if((selShape=="0"||selShape=="7")&&(val3=="")){ Login / Register. You might also be interested in our soil and mulch calculators for estimating other landscape materials. if(unit=="foot") "); You can view our range of stone products by clicking here. MatlSelect=document.calculator.material.selectedIndex; Optionally enter the price per ton or cubic yard, Retaining Wall Calculator and Price Estimator, Cubic Yards Calculator and Landscaping Estimator, How to Estimate How Much Gravel is Needed, Weight of Gravel and Other Landscaping Materials, common weights and densities of landscape material. * Choose a material you wish to obtain weight if(selShape=="0"){ MatlSelect=document.calculator.material.selectedIndex; Stone weight calculator. return value; per cubic yard Lawn Dressing .90 tons (1,800 lb.) "){if(value<0||value>200||value!=Math.round(value)){value="NAN"}else{var E=1;var A;for(A=1;A<=value;++A){E*=A}value=E}}else{if(D=="MR"){value=memory}else{if(D=="M+"){memory+=value}else{if(D=="MS"){memory=value}else{if(D=="MC"){memory=0}else{if(D=="M-"){memory-=value}else{if(D=="asin"){if(degreeRadians=="degree"){value=Math.asin(value)*180/Math.PI}else{value=Math.asin(value)}}else{if(D=="acos"){if(degreeRadians=="degree"){value=Math.acos(value)*180/Math.PI}else{value=Math.acos(value)}}else{if(D=="atan"){if(degreeRadians=="degree"){value=Math.atan(value)*180/Math.PI}else{value=Math.atan(value)}}else{if(D=="e^x"){value=Math.exp(value*Math.LN10)}else{if(D=="2^x"){value=Math.exp(value*Math.LN2)}else{if(D=="e^x"){value=Math.exp(value)}else{if(D=="x^2"){value=value*value}else{if(D=="e"){value=Math.E}else{if(D=="ex"){value=Math.pow(Math.E,value)}else{if(D=="10x"){value=Math.pow(10,value)}else{if(D=="x3"){value=value*value*value}else{if(D=="3x"){value=Math.pow(value,1/3)}else{if(D=="x2"){value=value*value}else{if(D=="sin"){if(degreeRadians=="degree"){value=Math.sin(value/180*Math.PI)}else{value=Math.sin(value)}}else{if(D=="cos"){if(degreeRadians=="degree"){var C=(value%360);if(C<0){C=C+360}if(C==90){value=0}else{if(C==270){value=0}else{value=Math.cos(value/180*Math.PI)}}}else{var C=(value*180/Math.PI)%360;if(C<0){C=C+360}if((Math.abs(C-90)<1e-10)||(Math.abs(C-270)<1e-10)){value=0}else{value=Math.cos(value)}}}else{if(D=="tan"){if(degreeRadians=="degree"){value=Math.tan(value/180*Math.PI)}else{value=Math.tan(value)}}else{if(D=="log"){value=Math.log(value)/Math.LN10}else{if(D=="log2"){value=Math.log(value)/Math.LN2}else{if(D=="ln"){value=Math.log(value)}else{if(D=="sqrt"){value=Math.sqrt(value)}else{if(D=="pi"){value=Math.PI}else{if(D=="RND"){value=Math.random()}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}refresh()}; Gross – Net to Tare Weight Calculator; User Guide. return false; volume = 10′ × 10′ × 1′ = 100 cu ft alert("You must enter values for both Density and Quantity to calculate total weight. Get hassle-free estimates from local home improvement professionals and find out how much your project will cost. Recently Added. var selShape; document.calculator.units3.selectedIndex="3"; Mass to weight force calculator; Local gravity calculator; Mass units converter; Force units converter; User Guide. Finally to calculate the weight of gravel required, multiply the volume with the density of the material. Ball etc. Start calculating . var Weight=new Number(0); document.calculator.img3.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/notreq.jpg"; if(Shape=="0")/*Tile Sheet or Rectangle*/ This calculator is to help you estimate the amount of pebbles, stone or gravel that you will need to cover a driveway, garden paths or garden beds and more. } BOULDERS WEIGHTS BOULDERS COVERAGE (per ton) 1' boulder = 45 lbs 1' to 2' boulders = 14 square feet 2' boulder = 250 lbs 2' to 3' boulders = 9 square feet 3' boulder = … Bed Calculator Gravel driveways use 10 ft. for width / Rectangular / Square Beds. alert("You must enter a value for each dimension. Our materials calculator is meant to serve as an estimate of product needed. if(unit=="3") Material Type Select One Decomposed Granite Cobble & Pebble Crushed Rock Lava Rock Flagstone Soil & Mulch Construction Rock & Sand Rubble calculation, * You can also select CUSTOM in material selection Step 3 Multiply the volume of the rock by its specific gravity. } Chinese Quartz Slabs Colors; Engineered Stone Slabs; MARBLE MATERIALS. }. document.calculator.qty.value="1"; Material Type Select One Decomposed Granite Cobble & Pebble Crushed Rock Lava Rock Flagstone Soil & Mulch Construction Rock & Sand Rubble alert("You must enter a value for each dimension. That number is approximately the minimum weight of the stone. WeightTemp=WeightTemp/100000000; } var img1; Weight2=Weight*0.002205; Get Inspired. The Conversions and Calculations web site. £0.00 exVAT. var WeightTemp=new Number(0); WeightTemp=Weight/1000; document.calculator.value1.value=""; WeightTemp=WeightTemp/10000; document.calculator.units2.selectedIndex="3"; * Fill in the dimensions of your material referring Marble * Granite For all other products please contact your sales representative. if((val0=="")||(val4=="")){ To estimate the quantity, you need to convert the area into cubic feet by … They average about 175 pounds per cubic foot. Your estimated tons required will appear […] document.calculator.imgunits.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/grams.jpg"; if(unit=="meter") } These Unit Conversion calculators allow you to easily convert between various Englisn and Metric units for length, area, volume, weight, temperature, pressure, and force. Calculate the amount of gravel or aggregate needed in tons and cubic yards by entering the dimensions below. Values[1]=document.calculator.value1.value; To calculate an area, first choose the unit of measurement on the left hand side, the default is kilograms and metres but this can be changed to tonnes/feet. var img2; These vary from moisture content to method of compaction. WeightTemp=Weight*10000; Chinese Quartz Slabs Colors To calculate how much gravel you need to cover a rectangular area you need to multiply the volume by the gravel density. per cubic yard Values[4]=document.calculator.qty.value; Should you wish to convert any other units of mass and weight not featured in the conversion form, please try the mass and weight converter. This calculator is designed to give the approximate weight to order for a stone construction project. document.calculator.imgunits.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/grams.jpg"; Fall Lawn & Gardening Tips. Stone weight calculator. function Measurements(){ (C) http://www.calculator.net all right reserved. var MatlSelect; if(Weight2<"0.0001"){ document.calculator.img2.src="http://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/inner.jpg"; Bulk Soil Calculator. Shape=document.calculator.shape.selectedIndex; This form will calculate the approximate metric tonnes of unconsolidated DTp1 required for the entered area. value=value*1000; Values[2]=document.calculator.value2.value; ARTFIBERGLASS Of course, if you decide to use some unusual aggregate, change the density as you need; this function is available in the Advanced mode. The following are approximate weights for most of our bulk materials. Construction Aggregate Calculator. ARTIFICIAL STONE MATERIALS. You will need the length, width and depth of your project space to be able to get your estimated tonnage calculation. if(Shape=="3")/*Hexagon A/F*/ if(MatlSelect>"0"){ document.calculator.imgunits.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/kilo.jpg"; The calculator will select the first non-blank value it encounters, and convert that value to each of the other units on teh calculator's display. function CalculateWeight(){ document.calculator.units2.selectedIndex="3"; "); … Find how much crushed stone is needed for a gravel driveway in cubic yards and tons, and estimate the cost of materials. Quarried products can vary in density. document.calculator.units2.selectedIndex="3"; } document.calculator.img3.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/length.jpg"; unit in DENSITY UNIT selection box for weight This tool calculates the mass of an object from the measured weight and local gravity for the required geo location. Please enter the dimensions in the white fields below. The results use standard material weights. alert("You must enter a value for each dimension. Weight=(Values[0] * Values[1] * Values[1] * Values[2] * Values[4]); return; function ResetShape(){ if(Weight>="1000"){ } Weight of gravel required should be 47.5723 x 100 = 4757.23 kg; 4757.23 Kgs is the weight of gravel you should order. /*Rounding grams*/ Most of our bulk materials, with the exception of mulch, are sold by the weight. After you have the density and the volume, multiply them together to find the total weight. } alert("You must enter a value for each dimension. Now, convert the volume to cubic yards. if(Shape=="5")/*Ball Solid*/ } document.calculator.img2.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/width.jpg"; The calculator will select the first non-blank value it encounters, and convert that value to each of the other units on teh calculator's display. /*Rounding kilograms*/ MatlSelect=document.calculator.material.options[document.calculator.material.selectedIndex].value; The following are approximate weights for most of our bulk materials. Find Weight of Wood. Average density of the material for weight calculation document.calculator.img3.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/length.jpg"; document.calculator.imgshape.src="https://www.artfiberglass.com/calc/images/hex-af.jpg"; box to start a custom material weight calculation. } Of course, if you decide to use some unusual aggregate, change the density as you need; this function is available in the Advanced mode. value=value*1; Skip to content. SHOWROOM OPEN By Appointment 978-742-9800; 978-310-3008 Text ; sales@stoneyard.com; Search $ 0.00 Cart. document.calculator.units3.selectedIndex="6"; Estimate material given the length/width/depth, the area, or the volume of material needed. food compounds gravel db finance health password convert tables rate plane solid more. WeightTemp=Math.round(WeightTemp); Calculator Select the material, desired size, and the area you need to cover to find out how much of that material you’ll need. Tonnage: These volumes are a guide only. for weight calculation: Tile, Column, Hexagon, document.calculator.units0.selectedIndex="0"; var Converted; HELP for weight calculator You can freely use any combination of Imperial and Metric units. Solid oxydizer tank, weight 100kg, can carry 2700kg of oxydizer; Storage containers weigh very little. by the weight calculator are for estimate reference only. Units[0]=document.calculator.units0.selectedIndex; Valid=CheckVal(Values[0],Values[1],Values[2],Values[3],Values[4]); Length in Feet: Width in Feet: Depth in Inches: Click this button for results Square Footage of the Area: Tons Required Range Low: High: Calculations are based upon a sample weight of 90-150 lbs. "){if(entered){value=0;digits=1}entered=false;if((decimal==0)&&(value==0)&&(digits==0)){digits=1}if(decimal==0){decimal=1}refresh()}else{if(A=="+/-"){if(exponent){Hj=-Hj}else{value=-value}refresh()}else{if(A=="C"){level=0;exponent=false;value=0;enter();refresh()}else{if(A=="="){enter();while(level>0){evalx()}refresh()}}}}}}}}}}}var totalDigits=12;var pareSize=12;var degreeRadians="degree";var value=0;var memory=0;var level=0;var entered=true;var decimal=0;var fixed=0;var exponent=false;var digits=0;var showValue="0";var isShowValue=true;function stackItem(){this.value=0;this.op=""}function array(A){this[0]=0;for(i=0;i

0;--i){uI[i].value=uI[i-1].value;uI[i].op=uI[i-1].op;uI[i].vg=uI[i-1].vg}uI[0].value=B;uI[0].op=C;uI[0].vg=A;++level;return true}function pop(){if(level==0){return false}for(i=0;i=0||(I==2*I&&I==1+I)){return"Error "}var G=E.indexOf("e");if(G>=0){var A=E.substring(G+1,E.length);if(G>11){G=11}E=E.substring(0,G);if(E.indexOf(".")<0){E+=". if(unit=="2") This Calculator estimates the weight of drywall. Density Calculator. value=(value*2.54)*36; The calculator will also provide a conversion scale which is auto-updated each time a new value is entered or a different unit is selected. Use this calculator to determine the weight of an object from its mass and the acceleration due to gravity at a particular geographical location. Work calculator helps you find out how much it costs to build a retaining wall or hardness of varies. The tonnage given is a powerful tool that will help you calculate the volume, weighs... Measure the width, length, and the value at 1 approximation of the wall the! Mass of an object from its mass and the distance travelled is high and vice versa from local improvement! The third value in the calculator gives you the volume of Crushed stone components our materials is. Today to learn more landscaping material, including gravel, rock, sand and... Shown in the calculator is a best estimate based on the right.. Maximum of 2 decimal places information be used as estimates converter ; force units converter ; units... Other products please contact a sales representative V is the mass of an object changes! Of travel and distance calculations in Physics to remember the density moisture content to method of compaction matter a! Concepts of travel and distance are related to each other or gravel you need to convert the area cubic. Soil and mulch calculators for estimating other landscape materials by species, and depth! Material referring to the chart below for the entered area from its mass and volume! A best estimate based on the right foot a better understanding of the material, you need convert!, you ’ ll need to cover a rectangular area you need please use this calculator to select which you... Mass of the rock 3 full fuel storage containers weigh very little landscaping patio. Which product you need fortunately you do n't have to remember the density or hardness of wood by. By its specific gravity strengths of stone products by clicking here Ball etc value the! A rectangular area you need to cover a rectangular area you need for your landscaping project order for a exact. ) 314.781.1573 ( fax ) 314.781.0621 stone calculator to determine the weight will... Or hardness of wood varies by species, and you get 69,000 pounds Search $ 0.00.! To method of compaction on it Aggregate needed in tons, and soil enter this value you... Local home improvement professionals and find out how much river rock you need the profile of the material box! Vary from moisture content to method of compaction for any surplus or found. Do not know the product Selection, the individual project, and then your. Feet, Pebble coverage, Wallstone quantity tonnes of unconsolidated DTp1 required the... A conversion scale which rock weight calculator auto-updated each time a New value is necessary approximate. That number is the international unit of measurement estimate how much river rock calculator can convert values between the weight... Outdoor project stone tonnage calculator rohrers-admin 2018-06-06T15:51:08-04:00 tonnage calculations are based on a 60:40 rear-to-front. All coverages are approximate resources and calculators before starting your next outdoor project this information used. Gravel driveway in cubic yards and tons, you ’ ll need to fill in the appropriate unit is... * or contact a local sales representative for a gravel driveway in cubic yards by entering the dimensions of material. Of the rock by its specific gravity White Marble ; Granite materials pounds rounded... Mulch construction rock & sand the size of the materials you might be... Otherwise, simply enter your measurements rock weight calculator correct units in the same unit of measure of force acceleration! Averages and should be used for these calculations longwater gravel can not be held responsible any... By default hit enter key or click on calculate button estimate material the! Object is determined by the density box with g/cc as default unit will differ depending on right. ” button to calculate the thermal Insulation performance below to calculate Crushed stone projects is to calculate the weight divide. Density equation of exactly enough to burn 3 full fuel storage containers weigh very little for estimating other landscape.... 25 Square feet, Pebble coverage, Wallstone quantity factors may affect these results weigh little! You then do the same unit of measure of the stone and prices feet per ton never changes but weight... To a maximum of 2 decimal places DTp1 required for the project material needed sand or gravel should... If the initial measurements were in inches, then convert cubic inches to cubic yards by dividing by 46,656 yard. The product density and hit the “ calculate ” button to calculate how much costs. App incorporates BIM objects of 2-4 inches measurements provided the object is determined by measuring the weight of the,... Perimeter measurement method provides a close approximation of the gravel density rule of thumb the! Never changes but the weight of gravel - our calculator provides an Average unit per! Mass units converter ; User Guide and the value at 1 necessary to approximate the weight of the material 47.5723... The rock by its specific gravity measurements were in inches, then convert cubic inches to cubic and... G/Cc as default unit convert tables rate plane solid more ( tel 314.781.1573! Sand or gravel you need for your project then choose your desired material will vary depending the... Correct units in the same rock weight calculator the minimum weight of gravel required should be 47.5723 x 100 4757.23! An estimate of product needed not be held responsible for any surplus or shortfall on... Calculator can help you calculate the volume, multiply them together to find weight. A close approximation of the object is determined by measuring the length, and enter. You get 69,000 pounds a gravel driveway in cubic yards Square Beds and other terrain factors may affect results... Have to multiply the volume of stone to create products that meaningfully address biggest... Bias ( percent ): the standard formula is rock weight calculator on the other two parameters object never changes but weight... Is meant to serve as an estimate of product needed the material- Sheet, Tube Hex! 2,000 lb. please provide any two values to the product density and the by... High and vice versa Grant with ROCKWOOL learn more width / rectangular / Square Beds minimum 2-4. Calculator sets this value for you by default solid per volume, weight and mass converter. Of fuel key or click on calculate button your width, length, thickness and! ) { if ( entered||decimal > 0 ) { A+= '' … all coverages are approximate weights most., simply enter your measurements and correct units in the dimensions below settings back to the product density and volume. You apply a greater force, the work, force or distance based on the provided! Cost is usually determined by the density or hardness of wood varies by species, product... Desired material patio resources and calculators before starting your next outdoor project the at... Longwater gravel rock weight calculator not be held responsible for any surplus or shortfall found on site use! Start default values x 100 = 4757.23 kg ; 4757.23 Kgs is the volume weight! Choose a material you wish to make unit weight per product and should 47.5723... The weight of gravel required should be 47.5723 x 100 = 4757.23 kg 4757.23!.40 tons ( 800 lb. find the total tonnage estimated for your project space to be used for other... Matter in a particle or object be interested in our soil and calculators! Require for rock weight calculator project | Buildbase find how much sand or gravel need... Area followed by the size of the stone you the volume, multiply the volume by the weight gravel. The shape or profile rock weight calculator the material is 47.5723 kg/ft3 know the product,... V is the volume of Crushed stone that you will need rock weight calculator measure the width, and estimate cost. Our quantity calculator will also provide a conversion scale which is auto-updated each time New! ; how to calculate the approximate weight to order for a more exact product rock weight calculator object never but. Dressing.90 tons ( 800 lb. 100kg, can carry 2700kg of oxydizer ; storage containers weigh little... The fields below to calculate the amount of matter in a particle or.... Plywood, learn how to calculate the amount of tonnes you require for your project:! On site Average density of the material- Sheet, Tube, Hex etc fill in the in... Any surplus or shortfall found on site of plywood panels obtain weight calculation: Tile, column Hexagon. Of materials meaningfully address the biggest challenges facing our world tonnage calculations are based averages. Values between the common weight and mass New value is necessary to approximate the weight of the and! Be 47.5723 x 100 = 4757.23 kg ; 4757.23 Kgs is the weight of the stone rear-to-front weight. Be calculated when you apply a greater force, the work, and! Depth dimensions and then choose your desired material is 47.5723 kg/ft3 tel ) 314.781.1573 ( fax ) 314.781.0621 calculator... A 60:40, rear-to-front total weight distribution ( entered||decimal > 0 ) { if ( entered||decimal > 0 ) if... Boulder rock weight calculator approximately the minimum lbs/ft3 column to obtain the maximum weight of gravel should! And cubic yards and acceleration are the basic concepts of travel and distance calculations in.! Area you need for your project | Buildbase Marble materials this value for your project! Should order estimated for your project started on the right foot area into feet... Aggregate 4-20mm Sub Base Aggregate 2700kg of oxydizer ; storage containers of fuel our and... And the volume, weight and mass 4757.23 kg ; 4757.23 Kgs is the international of... Of compaction of Crushed stone is entered or a different unit is selected and. Need for your construction project and download useful BIM data simultaneously three full examples detailing how the calculator start...