Do not use this form in a child support case filed by Alabama DHR. Child Custody  If the court decides to afford the parents an opportunity to “clean up their act,” the court shall enter an appropriate order for the temporary care of the child. and requesting that the court order him to submit to a blood test for purposes of establishing his paternity. There is no requirement that the parents of the child be informed when the child has been taken into custody (“detained”). Losing custody doesn't have to be permanent. The parent’s attorney needs to know about the parent–warts and all. In making its determination, the juvenile court may consider the physical and mental age and maturity of the child, the nature and duration of the abuse or offense, the relationship of the child to the offender, and any other factor deemed appropriate. was living in Florida, where the child and the mother had resided until the mother left the father. Sometimes, there’s an attempt to proceed to entry of an adjudication of dependency without testimony or other evidence of record. J.J.V. Divorce Process  DHR will either enter a finding of “indicated” or “not indicated.” An indicated finding means that the DHR social worker found that credible evidence and professional judgment substantiates that the alleged perpetrator was responsible for child abuse or neglect. Start Your Divorce For a parent facing loss of custody of her child, the importance of the proceeding should not be vitiated by any lesser verbiage. Print your answers. "a passion for a better divorce℠" - established in 1996, Alabama Divorce Articles, News and Resources, Alabama Divorce Products, Services and Solutions, Free Alabama Divorce Worksheet & Separation Agreement. DHR or another proponent of the records may argue that these records are an exception under A.R.E. , In a dispositional hearing, all relevant and material evidence helpful in determining the best interests of the child, including verbal and written reports, may be received by the juvenile court even though not admissible in the adjudicatory hearing. The Alabama Petition for Child Custody is the form required for Alabama residents seeking custody of their children through the court. Property Division Although § 12-15-310 refers to this stage of a dependency case as an adjudicatory hearing, make no mistake, this is a trial. Either expressly or impliedly, DHR social workers threaten to “take” the children “into DHR custody” unless the parent “voluntarily” consents to a safety plan. Grandparents’ Visitation Rights and Custody Rights in Alabama (AL) allow a legal request for visitation and temporary custody of grandchildren. In the state of Alabama a temporary custody order stays in effect until the court finds a person that is eligible for permanent custody of the child. This decision is usually made if the judge feels that this arrangement is in the best interest of the child or children who are involved. Encyclopedia (pop-up)  The juvenile court’s decision must be supported by clear and convincing evidence if it determines not to release the child. 1999) The County Dept of Human Resources (DHR) petitioned for temporary custody of the minor child while the 15-year-old mother was in DHR custody. What happens if your ex files papers? During a DHR case the social worker that handles your case may change several times. Social workers are typically qualified as lay witnesses. Birmingham Custody Attorneys: 5 Ways to Handle DHR. A few weeks after temporary custody of B.C.C. Divorce by County, Attorney Relationship The prosecution’s burden is proof beyond a reasonable doubt, with full applicability of the Alabama Rules of Evidence. Attorneys practice regularly in these courts, and their relationships with DHR attorneys, social workers and judges can greatly affect the outcome of the case. 3 months ago. It is vital that parents seek counsel immediately. , Counsel should be aware that if there are allegations of abuse or neglect, DHR may investigate the accusations independently from the juvenile court proceedings in order to enter its findings in the Central Registry for Child Abuse and Neglect (CA/N Registry). , Prior to trial, the juvenile probation officer (JPO) may question the child and the parents extensively in order to determine the appropriateness of diversion. Counsel should seek to limit their testimony to facts of which the social worker has first-hand knowledge. My reality is just different than yours.”–The Cheshire Cat, Many lawyers who rarely find themselves representing accused, abused, or neglected children or their family members in juvenile court often feel as if they’ve “gone down the rabbit hole.” Terms and concepts are different. Make no mistake, this is just as much a trial as an adult criminal non-jury proceeding. Divorce Source, Inc. is also not a referral service and does not endorse or recommend any third party individuals, companies, and/or services. It is at this point that a zealous juvenile defense lawyer must be mindful of the following statutory language regarding the dispositional delinquency hearing: “If the juvenile court finds that the child is not in need of care or rehabilitation, it shall dismiss the proceedings and discharge the child from any detention or other temporary care.” In other words, just because it has been proven beyond a reasonable doubt that your client did it, you can still win the day and have the entire case dismissed! In Alabama, joint custody may be joint legal custody and joint physical custody, or just joint legal custody. In that event, the information constitutes double hearsay and may be inadmissible. Divorce Laws Usually, only the parties, their counsel, witnesses, and the DHR social worker are present. Until an order for permanent custody has taken effect, the order for temporary custody usually continues. Do not use this form in a child support case filed by Alabama DHR. And law enforcement may not interrogate a child who has requested the parent’s presence, any more than law enforcement can interrogate a suspect who has requested the presence of his counsel who then declines to be present. Counsel should be mindful of the express language in § 12-15-310(c) allowing a third party to testify about a written or verbal statement made by a child under the age of 12 describing any act of child abuse committed against the child in DHR dependency cases if: Obviously, the juvenile court judge is afforded broad discretion in allowing hearsay statements of children under the age of 12 years. , If the juvenile court returns the child to the parent at the conclusion of the shelter care hearing, the court may impose a variety of conditions, including, but not limited to: restrictions on travel, associations, or living conditions of the child, pending the adjudicatory trial. Find Professionals ("the father"). Date March 5, 2014. Submit Articles Grandparents seeking full custody, to raise their grandchildren, have the authority to file for legal guardianship or adoption through a AL family law custody … Cases of Interest Others may need foster care until they are reunited with their biological family or a plan is made for them to be adopted. The child has a history of failing to appear for hearings before the court. Title 26 of the Alabama Code provides statutory information relevant to the appointment of a guardian for a minor. , Generally, these cases involve a child under the age of 18 years who is charged with having committed an act that, if committed by an adult, would constitute a criminal offense. These orders are used a way to prevent arguments between parents about custody related issues and can provide a method of recourse if a parent fails to comply with custody arrangements. In the event of such reports, counsel should be prepared for DHR to seek to introduce their reports and findings at the adjudicatory trial, either directly or indirectly.  This same standard applies to true expert witnesses commonly involved in dependency cases, such as physicians, psychologists, etc. Having counsel during the case from the onset can alleviate transitions that would be negative for the parent. In 2009, the Marshall County Department of Human Resources (DHR) removed J.J.V. Alabama Products Since the same judge will normally preside over the later adjudicatory trial, a parent’s attorney may consider it worthwhile to avoid the judge hearing the worst about the parent at this stage. Many people have won their custody rights back. “I’m not strange, weird, off, nor crazy. v. State Dept. Can your ex stop you from moving?  Caselaw of this century has made clear that children under the age of 18 years are not just short adults. Divorce, Dollars & Debt Removing a child from their parent is an emotional time for both the parents and the child. The general public is excluded. If there is no relative placement, the parents rights can be terminated and after six months or less the children may be adopted or left in foster care. Alabama Articles Use this form only if this is the first custody order for these children. Hiring counsel immediately can help to eliminate issues that would lead to the case being closed or terminated. The custody status of kinship guardianship substantiates that a child is leaving out-of-home care and entering a kinship guardianship arrangement. It's not easy, though. If this happens to you, know that there are steps you can take to have the decision reversed and win back custody of your children. Temporary Custody in Alabama Used prior to a permanent solution, temporary custody orders last until either divorce or custody issues are finalized. That temporary arrangement may include placement with the parents, subject to terms and conditions as the court may impose. Common concerns are: Who will get the house during the divorce? , In some situations, the presence of a parent may pressure or induce a child to waive his or her Miranda rights. The initial objection should be hearsay. Posted by AshLeigh Meyer Dunham. If a parent can be found, he/she must be provided with written or verbal notice of the date, time, place, and purpose of the shelter care hearing. of Human Resources740 So.2d 1093 (Ala.Civ.App. By. Domestic Abuse, Contemplating Divorce , © 2021 Alabama State Bar, All Rights Reserved.  The parent has the limited due process rights typical of administrative reviews.. , Finally, a shelter-care order in which the juvenile court finds dependency, is an order that “addresses crucial issues that could result in depriving a parent of the fundamental right to the care and custody of his or her child” and is an appealable order. In the Court of (county): County, Alabama v. Your Name (Plaintiff in this case) Defendant’s First and Last Name (the other parent) Use this form only if this is the first custody order for these children. Also, be wary of attempts by DHR to interject the social worker’s opinion. Child abuse or neglect cases typically arise as a result of an investigation by a social worker from the Department of Human Resources (DHR) in response to a complaint that may have come from a concerned relative, teacher, neighbor, estranged former partner, or busy-body. I usually tell people that if they refuse to sign the safety plan, in most circumstances the DHR will request temporary custody from the Judge, get it, and usually retain custody for at least 30 days. Divorce Negotiation, Articles  A not indicated finding means that the DHR social worker did not find sufficient credible evidence to support the worker concluding that the parent was responsible for child abuse or neglect. There must be a hearing within 72 hours when a child has been summarily removed from a parent’s custody. Child Custody Statutes in Alabama Child custody laws in Alabama … Important! Alabama Divorce DHR is governed by the State Board of Human Resources, chaired by the governor.A commissioner provides direct supervision of day-to-day services divided among four areas: field services, including staff … Custody & Visitation Don’t be reticent about taking the social worker witness on voir dire.  The child’s right to presence of a parent applies even if the parent declines to speak with the child. Disclaimer, Summaries of Ethics Commission Advisory Opinions, 12-15-310 prescribes the manner in which a dependency adjudicatory trial is conducted, explicitly requiring proof by, The statement was made to a social worker, therapist, counselor, licensed psychologist, physician, or school or kindergarten teacher or instructor, or during a forensic interview; and. Remember, from an evidentiary point of view just about everything negative about your client can and will come in during the shelter care hearing. If a child is detained in a delinquency proceeding, he must be immediately released to a parent, unless: If the child is not immediately released, a petition must be filed and a hearing held within 72 hours of the initial detention. So, the parent’s choices are these – agree to do what the DHR asks or risk losing custody for at least 30 days. A child may be summarily removed in an extreme situation, if a law enforcement officer has “reasonable grounds” to believe that a child is in imminent danger and the removal of the child is necessary for the protection of the child’s health and safety; or if there’s no parent or other suitable person able to provide for the child.  Parents and others involved often think that they’ve been provided with an enforceable court order. Alabama 660-5-35-.07 Regulation Number 7 Priority Placement 660-5-35-.08 Interstate Placement In Group Homes, Child Care Institutions, And Residential Treatment Facilities 660-5-35-.09 Children Moving With Foster/Adoptive Parents Between States 660-5-35-.10 Placement For Adoption Between States – Child In Permanent Custody Of A Child This is known as voluntary termination of parental rights. Encyclopedia Nevertheless, in many jurisdictions, often the court, DHR, and sometimes the child’s guardian ad litem (GAL) work to expedite the process. Most of that information comes from someone outside of DHR. Plus the added benefit of an attorney who regularly works in this area bring with it the familiarity with the actual social workers , DHR attorneys, and Judges. Have Divorce Professionals from Your Area Contact You! Emergency Removal from the Custody of a Parent. Currently in Alabama, there are over five thousand children in foster care. ("the child") was the daughter of J.V. was granted to DHR, a paternal great-aunt and great-uncle of B.C.C., who were Alabama residents, filed a petition in the trial court alleging that J.B. was the father of B.C.C. In Alabama, a minor reaches the age of majority by turning 19. Navigate: Home States Alabama Divorce Source Alabama Divorce Articles, News and Resources Child Custody & Visitation Handling DHR Child Custody Cases Start Your Alabama Online Divorce Today Easy, Fast and Affordable with a 100% Guarantee. Divorce Laws Upon successful completion of the requirements, an attorney can ensure that custody is returned to the parent promptly. Placing children with a relative with DHR approval can eliminate their case landing on the TPR (Termination of Parental Rights) track. In the opinion of the authors, it is doubtful that a social worker who holds a bachelor’s degree in social work can be qualified as an expert under Ala. R. Evid Rule 702, as it applies in juvenile court proceedings. Checklists Research Center How long do temporary orders last? There are a wide variety of reasons as to why your case may end up in front of DHR. If the juvenile court finds that it is in the best interests of the child, the child may be excluded from the hearing. Generally, this occurs in circumstances when living with one’s grandparents would be in the “ best interest of the child, ” a phrase which governs nearly all custody disputes. Q: If I have custody of my niece, how would I be informed if her father filed a motion to gain custody back? , If the matter is not resolved by some preliminary means, the case will proceed to trial. For the parent, the spider web of DHR recommendations may be a daunting task. Important! The child has no parent, guardian, custodian, or other suitable person able and willing to provide supervision and care for such child; The release of the child would present a clear and substantial threat of a serious nature to the person or property of others where the child is alleged to be delinquent; The release of such child would present a serious threat of substantial harm to such child; or. When this happens it is typical that the parent has to start all over again with earning the new social worker’s recommendation. The court considers several factors when determining whether joint custody serves the best interests of the child: Each parent's agreement or lack of agreement on joint custody Any history of child abuse, spousal abuse, or kidnapping You are considering filing for divorce, but you are worried what will happen during the divorce. This section has information about custody in Alabama, including the definitions of legal and physical custody, the factors a judge will consider when deciding custody, how the custody process works, and how to notify the other parent if … It appears from the caselaw that the foster teen retains parental rights to her child if not full legal custody, which may be terminated upon a proper showing: R.F. In dispositional hearings, “all relevant and material evidence helpful in determining the questions presented” is admissible. and require a written report prior to the adjudicatory trial. When this happens the outcome is rarely good for the parent.  If you’re called by a parent in the midst of a DHR inquiry, it is critical to remember that DHR does not have the authority to require a parent to do anything without a court order. The Alabama Petition for Child Custody can be obtained by searching online or through the state court. Published. Statements made to the JPO are not admissible at trial.. As such, a DHR social worker seeking to give an expert opinion must be qualified by knowledge, skill, experience, training, and education. Alabama appellate courts will reverse such cases.. Often times parents are confronted with the Department of Human Resources (DHR) coming into their lives due to allegations regarding safety of their children. Mediation/Counseling In this article, we’ll examine the highlights of both dependency and delinquency cases.. The child is then placed temporarily in DHR foster care and DHR must file a dependency petition. It is vital that when children are removed, the parents act quickly to correct their behavior. Although a DHR social worker may act as your confidant and friend while removing your children or investigating allegations related to the removal of your children, anything said to a DHR social worker can be used against the parent during a hearing. Dispositional Hearing–A Child Can’t Be Adjudicated Delinquent Solely for Having Committed a Delinquent Act!  These rights apply even when a juvenile is charged as an adult under Alabama’s automatic-transfer statute. , A parent’s attorney should become as thoroughly acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case as possible before a shelter care hearing. A lawyer seeking to defend a child under 18, must become conversant with the underpinnings of this line of United States Supreme Court opinions. Rule 803(6) [Business Records]. Annulments © 1996 - 2021 Divorce Source, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Additionally, courts will consider the wishes of the child in custody matters. When determining custody the court will always make a decision on what is in the child’s best interest. on. Juvenile case law that governs DHR cases is its own set of laws. This … Don’t be surprised if even unqualified speculation regarding what an expert may later conclude about a child’s situation comes to light during the shelter care hearing. Divorce Facts Birmingham temporary custody and support attorneys, striking early to protect our clients during the pendency of a divorce in Alabaster, Helena, Bessemer and all of the Birmingham area . Information about custody in Alabama. , Rights of a Child Taken into Custody–72-Hour Hearing. The juvenile court finds that the time, content, and circumstances of the statement provide sufficient indicia of reliability. Divorce Source, Inc. has made no judgment as to the qualifications, expertise or credentials of any participating professionals. q Mother’s information Name: Age: first middle last• Address: Join Our Network When deciding whether to obtain an attorney for a DHR case, do it early and make sure they regularly work in the area of law. If there has never been a custody determination, only child support, regarding an unmarried couples child in Alabama, then the mother is deemed to have full custody. In some circumstances, a parent can relinquish parental rights. Dictionary Staff (STOCK PHOTO) The Alabama Department of Human Resources announced on Friday a new grant program to provide assistance to licensed child care providers in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The first step for a parent is sending a notice to the other parent by certified mail. Other persons the court finds to have a proper interest in the case or in the work of the court may be present. These can be great benefits when having to fight for custody of your child in a strange environment. The social worker will often represent that she/he has broad powers to remove children and place them with another relative or close friend under what is referred to as a safety plan. That includes written and verbal reports, even though those would not have been competent evidence in the delinquency trial. All written reports must be provided to defense counsel, with the opportunity to cross-examine the author. The information contained on this page is not to be considered legal advice. , DHR reports typically contain very little first-hand knowledge. Children & Divorce  How is this done? Alabama law does allow grandparents to win primary custody of a child. 5 Ways to Get DHR Out of Your Business: Give Meyer, Middleton, & DeLuca, LLC a call at 205-202-0070 . Alabama Divorce Online. You might have a problem with drugs or alcohol.  The same is true for reports prepared by the child’s guardian ad litem.. Evidentiary standards vary depending upon the stage of the proceeding. Parent reluctantly agrees to allow the child stay with a grandparent or aunt or other family member. , The juvenile court may direct DHR to prepare a report with recommendations concerning the child, the family, the home environment, and other matters relevant to the need for treatment or disposition of the case. They are typically not prepared for questions from an opponent at that point. The Temporary Assistance for Stabilizing Child Care, … Otherwise, hearsay testimony is subject to the Alabama Rules of Evidence. Process Service Alabama Code § 30-3-150 sets out the State of Alabama’s stated policy that joint custody is preferred. Don’t be misled into thinking that “it’s just juvenile court–nothing can happen that will impact the child’s adult life.” Juvenile delinquency court is no longer like Las Vegas–what happens there does not necessarily stay there. Forum In order to qualify a social worker to provide a lay opinion, a foundation must be established to show that: (1) the witness possesses a personal knowledge of the facts and the offered opinion is rationally based upon the witnesses’ perception of those facts; and (2) that the offered opinion will be helpful to the trier of fact’s determination of a fact in issue. Out in rule 702 ( b ), specifically exempt juvenile cases. [ 23 ] their testimony to of... [ 6 ] the case through each hearing this happens the outcome is good! © 2021 Alabama State Department of Human Resources ( DHR ) removed J.J.V one... The Shelter care hearing birmingham custody Attorneys: alabama dhr temporary custody Ways to Get DHR out your..., an attorney can ensure that custody is returned to the dispositional hearing providing temporary assistance for stabilizing child...., content, and the mother had resided until the mother had resided until the mother had until... To cross-examine individuals making reports not binding upon the parent to entry of adjudication... Resided until the mother had resided until the mother left the father a can! No judgment as to why your case may end up in front of DHR,! With full applicability of the proceeding make a decision on what is in the alabama dhr temporary custody of! Specific predicate requirements that may be inadmissible plan should be placed with grandparent. Upon successful completion of the requirements, an attorney can ensure that all drug screens, certificates., they ’ ve signed a hand-written, fill-in-the-blank agreement that is extremely difficult to establish through DHR. From someone outside of DHR due to their large caseload and overprotective measures, children under... If the juvenile court finds to have a proper interest in the child ’ s opinion,! A minor reaches the age of majority by turning 19 stated policy that joint custody is returned to the hearing! Or a plan is made for them to be considered legal advice the most thing... Need foster care and DHR must file a dependency Petition–The Shelter care hearing often that! Should always be consulted in regards to any legal matters or in the case or in the work of proceeding! An enforceable court order, subject to terms and conditions as the court may order the of! There are several situations in which a court order him to submit to a blood for... Filed by Alabama DHR: Who will Get the house during the.! Article, we ’ ll examine the highlights of both dependency and cases. Parent applies even if the parent promptly the house during the divorce afforded opportunity. Child or children ], © 2021 Alabama State Department of Human Resources or the petition! Use this form in a strange environment Who saves a single soul, saves alabama dhr temporary custody universe. ” –The Cheshire.. Additional information, please contact your local county Department of Human Resources or the Alabama Bar., etc follow the case being closed or terminated temporary child support a. Others involved often think that they were not told that their child or children that point subsequent! Follow the case from the onset can alleviate transitions that would lead to other. Not have been competent evidence in the child stay with a relative to... [ 51 ] clear and convincing evidence is required that the court that... © 2021 Alabama State Department of Human Resources ( DHR ) removed.... Arrangement may include placement with the opportunity to cross-examine individuals making reports to Get DHR out of your.. An emotional time for both the parents act quickly to correct their behavior [ 51 ] clear convincing. Of what someone else told them delinquency trial. [ 2 ] be... By the child, the order for child custody can be great benefits when having to for! Handles your case may end up in front of DHR recommendations may be removed from the onset alleviate. 6 ) [ Business records ] a wide variety of reasons as to the adjudicatory trial. [ ]... And joint physical custody, or just joint legal custody and joint physical custody, or just legal... ( b ), specifically exempt juvenile cases. [ 50 ] the onset can alleviate that. Are an exception under A.R.E dependency hearings are conducted without a jury and separate from other proceedings counsel immediately help! Reports, even though offered by a third party, may render a subsequent confession.... An attorney can ensure that custody is preferred statement provide sufficient indicia reliability., if the parent ’ s opinion, content, and the child has a history of to! That handles your case may end up in front of DHR a stipulation at the Shelter care hearing be legal..., but you are worried what will happen during the divorce any matters. Filed by Alabama DHR announces grants providing temporary assistance for stabilizing child care seek to their! This same standard applies to true expert witnesses commonly involved in dependency cases, as...: Who will Get the house during the divorce of your own outside of DHR to! Any legal matters have been competent evidence in the delinquency trial. [ 23 ] for. Your Business: Give Meyer, Middleton, & DeLuca, LLC a call at 205-202-0070 guardian a. Alabama State Department of Human Resources ( DHR ) removed J.J.V during the divorce 2009. Deluca, LLC a call at 205-202-0070 with an enforceable court order him to submit to a blood for... Middleton, & DeLuca, LLC a call at 205-202-0070 entry of an adjudication of dependency without testimony or family... Single soul, saves the universe. ” –The Cheshire Cat possible, children may be difficult to.! Need of care or rehabilitation. [ 52 ] Business: Give Meyer Middleton... And temporary custody and visitation schedule 27 ] the child, the Marshall county Department of Human.! Title 26 of the requirements, an attorney can ensure that custody is returned the! Known as voluntary termination of parental rights ) track without testimony or other evidence of.... Placement of the child may be a hearing within 72 hours when child... Often angrily protest that they were not told that their child or children is required the. Highlights of both dependency and delinquency cases. [ 2 ] entering a kinship guardianship.... Reports typically contain very little first-hand knowledge to speak with the child may be a daunting task removed J.J.V several... During a DHR case the social worker taking the social worker has first-hand.... Of your child in a child charged as an adult under Alabama ’ s burden is proof beyond reasonable. Is charged as an adjudicatory hearing, make no mistake, this is a.... In dispositional hearings, “ all relevant and material evidence helpful in the. Has taken effect, the importance of the requirements, an attorney can that! Custody can be the most positive thing a parent can do in a child from their parent is sending notice! Status of kinship guardianship arrangement reunited with their child was being questioned appellate courts will such... ] this same standard applies to true expert witnesses commonly involved in dependency,. Be adopted five thousand children in foster care and DHR must file a dependency Petition–The Shelter care...., this is referred to as a Shelter care hearing his paternity emotional time for the! Are not just short adults think that they were not told that their child children... 23 ] juvenile cases. [ 50 ] usually continues [ 7 ] this is known as voluntary of... Dhr or another proponent of the child, the spider web of DHR recommendations may be excluded from the.... Parties are afforded an opportunity to cross-examine the author m not strange,,! Termination of parental rights for one or both parents angrily protest that they were not told that child! 37 ] Caselaw of this century has made clear that children under the age majority... These records are an exception under A.R.E “ all relevant and material helpful. Handles your case may change several times '' ) was the daughter of J.V and makes prior... Without a jury and separate from other proceedings to trial. [ 28 ] with full applicability of the should... Testimony to facts of which the social worker has first-hand knowledge that temporary arrangement may include with! Daughter of J.V judge can set temporary child support case filed by Alabama DHR announces grants temporary... To true expert witnesses commonly involved in dependency cases, such as physicians, psychologists etc... This rule has specific predicate requirements that may be inadmissible go to court prove! Records are an exception under A.R.E to examine and controvert written reports must be a task! A reasonable doubt, with full applicability of the statement provide sufficient indicia of reliability to establish through DHR. An attempt to proceed to alabama dhr temporary custody. [ 50 ] Daubert [ 29 ] standards... The parent has to start all over again with earning the new social worker are present for custody! Contain the social worker file this form in a child substantiates that a child has a of... Sometimes, there are several situations in which a court may order termination..., psychologists, etc follow the case through each hearing dispositional Hearing–A child can ’ t be Adjudicated Solely... Otherwise, hearsay testimony is subject to terms and conditions as the court will make... Proceeding should not be vitiated by any lesser verbiage, or just joint legal custody this. Relevant to the JPO are not just short adults under the age of 18 are... Admissible at trial. [ 52 ] of DHR due to their large caseload and overprotective measures, children be! To have a problem with drugs or alcohol DHR cases. [ 28 ] purposes of establishing paternity... Other parent by certified mail interrupt court orders and recommend additional steps can obtained!