Heavy metal buildup in soils is of concern in agricultural production due to the adverse effects on food safety and marketability, crop growth due to phytotoxicity, and environmental health of soil organisms. High clay content, high cation exchange capacity and presence of calcium carbonate immobilized considerable amount of cadmiun and lead in the soil and showed lesser phyto-toxicity to Cd and pb in the present investigation as compared to that reported by others. Aust J Sci 25:363–364, Wintz H, Fox T, Vulpe C (2002) Responses of plants to iron, zinc and copper deficiencies. Mukherji and, inhibited protease and amylase by about 50 %, in rice endosperm. Biotechnology 13:468–474, Schmfger MEV (2001) Phytochelatins: complexation of metals and metalloids, studies on the phytochelatin synthase. Variable levels of Cd were created through the application of CdCl 2 @ 0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd/kg soil. 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Metal toxicity has high impact and relevance to plants, and consequently, it affects the ecosystem, where the plants form an integral component. Plant Metal Interaction: Emerging Remediation Techniques covers different heavy metals and their effect on soils and plants, along with the remediation techniques currently available. This article details the range of heavy metals, toxicity for plants, and mechanisms of plants to cope with metal toxicity. Plants growing in metal-contaminated sites exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, lower biomass production, and metal accumulation. But large amounts of any of these may cause Acute or Chronic Toxicity 4. in metal-polluted sites exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, lower biomass production and metal accumulation. A major consequence of oxygen-free, radical damage to proteins is to target them for, degradation by proteases (Roseman and Levine, some dehydratases such as aconitases is also, another important aspect of protein oxidation, and transition metals (in particular iron) are, implicated in lipid peroxidation, and biological, membranes rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Any fractionation, extraction, or, tissue fixation procedure used will introduce the, possibility of measuring only artifacts. As a first line of defense, many, plants exposed to toxic concentrations of metal, ions attempt to prevent or reduce uptake into root. duce some common effects on plants in general, there are many cases of specific differential, effects of individual metals on different plant, genotypes. Epstein E (1961) Mineral metabolism of halophytes. Biol Plant 29:453–467, Sudhakar C, Symalabai L, Veeranjaveyuler K (1992) Lead tolerance of certain legume species grown on lead or tailing. It is only when, metals are present in bioavailable forms and at excessive levels; they have the, potential to turn out to be toxic to plants through formation of complex, compounds within the cell. Wiley, New York, pp 193–229, Romero-Puertas MC, Rodriquez-Serrano M, Corpas FJ, Gomez M, Del Rio LA, Sandalio LM (2004) Cadmium-induced subcellular accumulation of O, Ros R, Cook DT, Martinez-Cortina C, Picazo I (1992) Nickel and cadmium-related changes in growth, plasma membrane lipid composition, ATPase hydrolytic activity and proton pumping of rice (, Roseman IE, Levine RL (1987) Purification of a protease from Escherichia coli with specificity for oxidized glutamine synthetase. Nickel and cadmium-related changes in growth, plasma membrane lipid composition, ATPase hydro-, lytic activity and proton pumping of rice (, L. cv. Physiological and biochemical processes in plants high impact and relevance to plants and metals! 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