The work is by Jacques Courtois, Il Borgognone. Pope John was a Dalmatian himself, and when Slav barbarians overran his homeland he brought the relics of some of the more important Dalmatian saints here. Each has three storeys separated by dentillated cornices, the upper two storeys having soundholes in the form of an arcade of three arches separated by little columns. The four separate museum institutions were transferred from the Lateran Palace to the Vatican Museums on the orders of Pope St John XXIII, and the collections put back on public display there in 1970. Most of these contain slabs or roundels in dark red porphyry or dark green serpentine, but some have intricate geometric designs in mosaic. He built the Loggia of Benedictions (Loggia delle Benedizioni) which was attached to the north end of the aula concilii, and was a spectacular raised balcony over the aula's entrance. To its north-west is the Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano with its obelisk, and this has been historically the main focus of the church's civic presence. When everything was finished, they made this [place] sacred by the name of the Saviour who gives the heavenly kingdom. The original silver fastigium was looted by the Visigoths when they sacked the city in 410, and replaced by Emperor Valentinian III in the reign of Pope Sixtus III (432-40). Another large house around a trapezoidal courtyard was located under the basilica's apse in 1884 during restoration work. Subsidiary dedications are to SS John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, hence the full name. The importance of this road is that the baptistery preserves the alignment in its major axis. From left to right, the shields are of Popes Urban V, Pius IX and Gregory XI. The garth or central garden has had some major makeovers in the last two centuries. In the city the phoenix, a symbol of immortality, is perched on the Tree of Life. This has a fragment of the pope's original monument, a relief effigy of the pope giving a blessing, which has been inserted into a capsule-shaped tondo surrounded by a wreath with spiky stars (from Pope Alexander's heraldry). Pope Sixtus had a bronze cross put on top instead, set on stylized mountains, a star and four pear-holding lions which occur in his coat-of-arms (the mountains and star originated with the Chigi family, although he was a Peretti -hence the pears). Above these reliefs are frescoes of prophets in oval tondi, executed in 1718 by a team of artists. In 897 the basilica was the scene of the surreal "cadaver synod", when Pope Stephen VI (896–897) had the body of Pope Formosus (891-896) exhumed and put on a mock trial. This entablature is supported on pendentives, which are defined by the short coffered barrel vaults of the cross arms. The only documentary source for the foundation is the Liber Pontificalis, first compiled in the 7th century and hence not entirely reliable. It shelters a porphyry slab set into the wall, said in mediaeval times to be the stone. These support a pair of Corinthian pilasters in a dark grey marble, and a pair of free-standing porphyry columns which together support the ends of an apse entablature. By this time the hills of Rome were already depopulated, because the aqueducts had failed and the only way to obtain a water supply was to dig a deep well. The two to the north are entirely hidden by the palace; the eastern one is the Cappella Torlonia and has a little dome in lead, while the western one is the Cappella Massimo and has a simple pitched and tiled roof. The wall in which this is set is actually a false screen, concealing the gable end of the transept behind. Pope Pius XI gave a home in the complex to the University of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, which had been founded by Pope Clement XIV in 1773 when he suppressed the Jesuits (previously in charge of training the diocesan clergy). Whoever you are who come to this tomb with the light fading, say 'Almighty God, have mercy on him'!"). Also here are a pair of marble lion door stops of about the same period. The plan is based on a Greek cross, with side arms half the length of the entrance and sanctuary arms. Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano. Further on is a Borromini-and-Cosmatesque memorial to the Milanese Cardinal Conte Casati (died in 1287), whose name is often erroneously given as Giussano. Cloisters: 9:00 to 18:00 (there is an entry charge of two euros). The fourth storey is the canopy. It was a private chapel for the Pope. The dedication is to Christ the Saviour, the same as that of the basilica. This is an allusion to his magisterial work on the subject, De Trinitate, which introduced the developed doctrine of the Trinity to Latin-speaking Christians. The work was overseen by Fontana, who signed the plinth in satisfaction. To the right are SS John the Baptist, Anthony of Padua, John the Evangelist and Andrew the Apostle. The saints stand on a flowery meadow. Note the very interesting detail that the nails are through Christ's wrists, not the palms of his hands as usually depicted in art. The mosaic occupies the upper part of the far wall, and the conch of the little apse of the sanctuary. There are stucco stars within the wreath, and the Dove of the Holy Spirit in the oculus itself. The dedication is to St Andrew Corsini, although the chapel which was here beforehand was dedicated to St Gregory the Great. The altar frontal features polychrome marble work on a backing of red jasper. Die ‘Arcibasilica di San Giovanni in Laterano’, oder auch Erzbasilika wurde 313 unter Kaiser Konstantin dem Großen gegründet. Below these in turn, the walls and arch piers were revetted spectacularly with polychrome marbles by Borromini. The fabric of the end of the transept which is counted as the chapel has eight Composite pilasters supporting an entablature. Below the crucifix and in between the column plinths is a shrine to the Madonna delle Grazie, showing the Mother and Child in between SS Lawrence and Sebastian. It is uncertain as to whether the Constantinian baptistery was rendered in plaster or clad in stone, but the Sistine baptistery was clad in large marble tiles about a centimetre thick and fixed with cement rather than being nailed on. The first mention of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius in the Campus Lateranensis (the present Piazza di San Giovanni Laterano) is from 965. Beyond is a busy road junction, where traffic leaves and enters the walled city by the 16th century Porta San Giovanni, which replaced the ancient Porta Asinaria. Inserted into the segmental pediment over the doorway is a tablet commemorating the Jubilee of 1875, and above is a large oval tondo containing an epigraph recording the silver jubilee of episcopacy (twenty-five years) of Pope Pius XII in 1942. Here stood the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius before it was moved to the Campodoglio in 1538. Type: (This spectacular Loggia should not be confused with the one now over the north transept entrance, but was sited in what is now the main road to the north-east of the obelisk). The ones in the first storey have block capitals featuring reliefs with ribbons, swags and Barberini bees, while the second storey ones are topped with what look like miniature ancient Roman aqueducts. The central nave is a study in contrasts. Pope Sixtus V was told of its documented existence, and it was found in 1587 seven metres below the surface of the vegetable gardens that the Circus had become, broken in three pieces. The wall and vault frescoes are by Cherubino Alberti and his brother Giovanni, but the lunettes are by Agostino Ciampelli. The inner aisles have shallow saucer-domes or cupolas behind the central nave arcade arches, and short barrel vaults behind the piers. Off the outer side aisles are external chapels, three large ones with two small ones on the left and two large ones with two small ones on the right. Subsidiary dedications are to SS John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, hence the full name. After another entablature with larger gilded rosettes, there comes the third storey which is a large open relic chamber. ), to the left Cardinal Angelico de Grimoard. This restoration involved new mosaics in the apse, and a tower campanile was also apparently erected. However, the latter has no columns but a pair of piers faced with sunk panels in red marble. This was taken as evidence of a circular 4th (?) The Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312 saw the triumph of Constantine and the rout of the equites. The new civic space was the terminus of the equally new Via di San Giovanni in Laterano, laid out from the Colosseum in order to give a proper direct route from the city for papal processions. The cloisters of Basilica di San Giovanni in Later. It is flanked by two low Romanesque bell-towers, given their present form by Pope Pius IV (1559-65) whose heraldry is on display in two gigantic panels (the shield with balls is of the Medici family). Tempus uterque comit, praeclarus uterque sophia, gaudet et omne seclum, frangitur omne reum. In 1984 the Museo di San Giovanni in Laterano was opened, mostly comprising items from the basilica's Treasury. These define five rectangular portals into the narthex, and five arched openings into the loggia. These remained empty until 1702, when they were used to display colossal statues of the twelve apostles. There are still many relics and holy objects here, including ancient reliquaries with stones and earth from the Holy Land, brought back by pilgrims. She is flanked by (left to right) St Venantius (holding a model of the chapel), St John the Evangelist, St Paul, St John the Baptist, St Domnius and Pope Theodore I in whose reign the mosaic was finished. The 16th century ceiling and dome were remodelled. The same pope might have built the present baptistery, but this is disputed (see section below). The walls look as if they are revetted in coloured stone. It is protected by gilded bronze railings with a barley-sugar twist ,which were installed by Pope Gregory XI. In 1725 a statue of Pope Clement XII was commissioned from Agostino Cornacchini for this location in the narthex, but the pope apparently hated it and had it removed (is it the same statue as the one set up in Ancona in 1738? It reads: Dogmate papali datur ac simul imperiali quod sim cunctarum mater et caput ecclesiarum. Also on the right are two statues of SS Peter and Paul, carved in columnar style and dating from the end of the 13th century. The chapel is a spectacular, no-expenses-spared example of what is usually called late Baroque (tardobarocco). Then, the other seven sides also had doorways although without porches. In Rome: San Giovanni in Laterano. Unfortunately the loss of surface detail makes it difficult to ascribe the work firmly to the hand of Giotto, instead of his school. Only the gilded ceiling and the Cosmatesque floor were kept, although Borromini had intended to provide a vault for the central nave. 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