Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Seismic activity that results in earthquake generates two types of seismic waves: body and surface. Although it is impossible to prevent earthquake from occurring, it is possible to mitigate the effects and to reduce loss of life, injuries and damage. Furthermore, construction workers should be trained about earthquakes and construction of earthquake-resistant buildings. and Ates et al. How can earthquake hazard be mitigated? After these earthquakes, 604 people were killed and 4852 people were injured, among of them 1301 people were seriously injured. Thus, the whole or the significant parts of the wall fall down during the earthquake. Length of column is an important factor for dissipation of these loads. Meanwhile, the combination of the social vulnerability map and seismic hazard a)Safe and well designed buildings. Main reasons of masonry building damages in terms of design faults can be shown as heavy earthen roofs, inappropriate detailing of wall to wall connection and wall to roof connection, absence of bond beams, large openings. US-Asia Conference on Engineering for Mitigating Natural Hazards Damage Thailand [8] Malaysian Meteorological Service. Beside tsunami, earthquakes can create many more disasters such as liquefaction, landslides, earth ruptures and most prominently ground vibration. In addition to this measure, vertical bond beams should be constructed near the openings. Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and Examples: evacuation; search and rescue; emergency relief. In this book chapter, reasons of damages for reinforced concrete and masonry structures arose from earthquakes are presented. According to information that obtained from investigated buildings, the main reasons of failures of are presented below. (a) Detachment of infill wall during the Bingöl earthquake and (b) In-plane damage of during the Van earthquake. In this book chapter, earthquakes and reasons of damages arose from earthquakes for reinforced concrete and masonry structures were presented. As a result of these heavy roofs, the structures are subjected to larger inertia forces during the earthquakes [41]. Based on these considerations, the alignment of the Probolinggo-Banyuwangi toll road is in the process of being submitted for a shift to the east in order to avoid the location of the Wonorejo fault. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, World Disasters Report, In addition to this, appropriate solutions are suggested. Loud speakers and battery (alternate) power is available. HAZUS is often used to … Disintegration in stone masonry buildings [28]. Framework, pp 14-17, 2006. Development of Seismic Hazard Map for A total of 21 earthquakes with, In Sabah, in preceding 84 years (since 1923 to 2007), Sabah had experienced 65 earthquakes. Moreover, organizations have been established mainly dedicated for natural disaster management. Figure 9a and b shows these types of waves. These strategies include spreading fault displacement over a large area, causing the structure to respond with rigid-body movement, and diverting the fault rupture around the structure. Earthquake Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia, Earthquake Response and Recovery in Malaysia. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation. Malaysia. At the national level non-structural mitigation strategies include campaigns to create a public awareness of warning services and protective measures, since informed citizens are more likely to check the condition of their roofs and other structures at risk. This current study undertook the vulnerability assessment of selected infrastructures, such as. More than 200,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, though it is estimated that several million occur globally. Bayraktar et al. The last earthquake tragedy for Turkey, very close to present time, is Erciş (Van) and Edremit (Van) earthquakes. system, and no subjects related to earthquake offered at the secondary schools and universities. Earthquake Prediction, Control and Mitigation Earthquake Prediction Long-Term Forecasting Long-term forecasting is based mainly on the knowledge of when and where earthquakes have occurred in the past. Non-structural Mitigation. People give importance to, listen carefully to the announcement from a mosque. WCDR, A Re v i ew o f Disaster Management Policies and Systems in Pakistan, Islamabad, However, these roofs lose their effectiveness because of weather conditions, such as rain and snow. The purpose of the ATC-22 is to determine the potential earthquake hazard and identify buildings or building components that present unacceptable risk to human lives. investigated the performance of buildings with masonry infill walls after the 2011 Lorca, Spain, earthquakes. Earthquakes can cause devastating effects in terms of life and property. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL MUSEUMS Nevra Ertürk * and Bilgen Sungay** * Research Assistant, Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Art and Design, Museum Studies Graduate Program and Art Management Program, nerturk@yildiz.edu.tr * Architect, Project Development Team, Bogazici * University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake … The materials were modified to be. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation.Risk analysis on physical constructions should be carried out to reduce physical threats. Earthquake loads increase the shear force. In 1999 Kocaeli earthquakes, more than 17,000 people were killed and more than 40,000 people were injured and 300,000 people became homeless. frequently while others take place occasionally. a)Land-use planning. Thus, during an earthquake, partial and total collapses occur in these storeys. Table 4.1 Structural and Non- Structural Earthquake Mitigation Measures 21 Table 5.1 Capacity Building Measures 32 Table 5.2 Training for Various Stakeholders 36 Table 6.1 Levels of Disaster (L Concept) 41 Table 6.2 Standard Operating Procedure for Earthquake Response 45 Table 6.3 Emergency Support Functions 51 List of Figures Figure 2.1 Institutional Mechanism at State Level 07 … Although failures of gable walls are not structural damages, these damages may be cause loss of lives and properties. Using GIS to map hazard areas, at-risk structures, and associated hazards (e.g., liquefaction and landslides) to assess high-risk areas. Flood mitigation measures have been in place since the 1950s, in the form of embankments, dams and barrages etc. earthquake risk mitigation strategies. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. Top Answer. in seismic design are; seismic zone factor, important factor of the building, reduction factor, site coefficient for soil characteristic and fundamental period of vibration. One of the most important reasons of life and economic loss during the earthquake is combined effect of in-plane and out-of-plane movement of the wall. GEOTECHNICAL MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR EARTHQUAKE SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE Nicolas K. Oettle, S.M. In general structural mitigation is the … Hundreds of thousand people lost their lives and loss of billions of dollars’ properties occurred in these disasters. Development of Seismic Hazard Map for Klang Valley. b)Safe location of the buildings. Nuti and Vanzi (1998) compare structural upgrad-ing strategies for hospitals based on various performance indices for the response of the associated system of hospitals, including, for example, average distance traveled for a casualty, and decrease in number of damaged beds. A lack of bond beams, poor connections among the walls and the roofs, and large unsupported wall lengths cause the separation of walls and cause damage to occur via the of out-of-plane mechanism. Body waves move through the interior layers of earth’s. 15 16 17. undertake mitigation training with support from state and federal governments. In the areas struck by earthquake, three failure modes of the shear damages in masonry buildings are generally observed, namely diagonal shear failures that proceed through masonry units and mortar (Figure 22a–b), sliding consisting of straight failure at the horizontal bed joints (Figure 22c), and stepped failures from the head to bed or bed to head joints (Figure 22d). 2002. Rossetto and Peiris evaluated the performance of government, commercial, and residential buildings after the October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan. Figure 19 shows the damaged masonry buildings arising from heavy earthen roof at various earthquakes. The outer layer of the earth is called as “crust.” The thickness of this layer is between 35 and 70 km for continents, and this thickness varies between 5 and 10 km thickness for ocean floor. These units are easily broken into small pieces as they have very low strength. Wiki User Answered . . Also, the gable walls of some masonry buildings are affected negatively by the out-of-plane mechanism. MUSEUM SOS: Strategies for Emergency Response and Salvage American Museum of Natural History, New York, U.S.A. May 11-16, 2004 NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL MUSEUMS Nevra Ertürk,Research Assistant Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Art and Design (FAD) Museum Studies Graduate Program, Art Management Program … Out-of-plane mechanism may appear from the combination of several deficiencies. However, construction of buildings by using local materials with poor workmanship on the base of traditional rules is the other reason of failures for these buildings. In addition to this, vertical and horizontal bond beams should be used. Structural Strategies a) Flood Mitigation. conducted a study about the behavior of R/C buildings after L’Aquila earthquake which occurred on April 6, 2009, in Italy [24]. Ghobarah et al. This layer is approximately 2900 km thickness. and Flores. Geotechnical Mitigation Strategies for Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture Nicolas K. Oettle, S.M.ASCE1; and Jonathan D. Bray, F.ASCE2 Abstract: Surface fault rupture can be damaging to structures built on or near active faults if the hazard is not addressed properly. This problem can be solved by using close-spaced stirrups and 1350 bended hooks to increase shear resistance of structural elements. Section 2 shows structure of the earth, plate tectonics, seismic waves, faults, and effects of earthquakes. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, A Study of Earthquake Acceleration Response Spectra at Far Field. The objectives for this unit are to: Identify the earthquake hazards in and around the school. Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint.